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Which process is most likely to result in a gene providing antibiotic resistance being found in a viral genome?

Which process is most likely to result in a gene providing antibiotic resistance being found in a viral genome?

Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes from other bacteria in several ways. By undergoing a simple mating process called “conjugation,” bacteria can transfer genetic material, including genes encoding resistance to antibiotics (found on plasmids and transposons) from one bacterium to another.

How do national and international agencies combat antibiotic resistance?

Strengthen national One Health surveillance efforts to combat resistance. Advance development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests for identification and characterization of resistant bacteria. Accelerate basic and applied research and development for new antibiotics, other therapeutics, and vaccines.

Which of the following drugs are linked to the development of superinfection?

The antibiotic most frequently related to superinfection was ciprofloxacin (38.1%), followed by cefotaxime (23.3%), imipenem (12%), meropenem (10.2%), and cefepime (6.1%). The lowest percentage of superinfection was observed with the use of piperacillin-tazobactam (5.4%).

What would be the significance of bacterial colonies growing in the zone of inhibition?

Colonies that grow within a zone of inhibition are NOT susceptible to the antibiotic used at that particular concentration. This is one way in which you can select for resistant mutants to the specific antibiotic. It is also possible that your plate is contaminated by a non-susceptible strain.

How do antibiotic-resistant genes develop?

Molecular epidemiology of resistance genes Acquired resistance occurs when a bacterium that has been sensitive to antibiotics develops resistance—this may happen by mutation or by acquisition of new DNA. Mutation is a spontaneous event that occurs regardless of whether antibiotic is present.

What is a zone inhibition?

The Zone of inhibition is a circular area around the spot of the antibiotic in which the bacteria colonies do not grow. The zone of inhibition can be used to measure the susceptibility of the bacteria to wards the antibiotic.

What are the consequences of antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance results in a decreased ability to treat infections and illnesses in people, animals and plants. This can lead to the following problems: increased human illness, suffering and death, increased cost and length of treatments, and.

What is currently being done to combat antibiotic resistance?

Approval of certain new antibiotics. Since 2015, FDA approved new antibiotics that can treat certain resistant bacteria. Health care professional are encouraged to use the new antibiotics appropriately and for some antibiotics, use only in patients who have limited or no other treatment options.

What are the actions projects of the local government to fight antibiotic resistance?

(1) Committing to develop a master plan.

  • to combat antimicrobial resistance.
  • (2) Strengthening surveillance and.
  • laboratory capacity.
  • (3) Ensuring uninterrupted access to.
  • essential medicines of assured quality.
  • (4) Promoting rational use of medicines in.
  • patient care and animal husbandry.
  • What is superinfection give example?

    Superinfection definition The definition of a superinfection is an additional infection that happens during or immediately after an existing infection. An example of a superinfection is having an ear infection caused by microorganisms which are resistent to the antibiotics taken for a recent throat infection.

    What does a zone of inhibition indicate?

    zone of inhibition: This is an area of media where bacteria are unable to grow, due to presence of a drug that impedes their growth. minimum inhibitory concentration: This is the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial drug that prevents visible growth of a microorganism after overnight incubation with media.

    What happens when bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics?

    When bacteria become resistant, the original antibiotic can no longer kill them. These germs can grow and spread. They can cause infections that are hard to treat. Sometimes they can even spread the resistance to other bacteria that they meet.

    How antibiotic resistance happens and spread?

    Resistant bacteria spread to humans and other animals through poorly prepared food, close proximity and poor hygiene. Resistant bacteria spread to the environment and food through water contaminated by faeces or through wildlife.

    Is Zone of inhibition good?

    Zone of inhibition testing is fast and inexpensive relative to other laboratory tests for antimicrobial activity. Zone of inhibition testing is especially well suited for determining (albeit qualitatively) the ability of water-soluble antimicrobials to inhibit the growth of microorganisms.

    What affects the zone of inhibition?

    Zones of inhibition were larger when the incubation temperature was lower than that which was commonly used and/or when the nutrient level was decreased; the zones were smaller when the incubation temperature was raised and/or when an increased nutrient level was used.

    Who is most affected by antibiotic resistance?

    Who is at risk of antibiotic-resistant infections? Everyone is at risk of antibiotic-resistant infections, but those at the greatest risk for antibiotic-resistant infections are young children, cancer patients, and people over the age of 60.

    What are the clinical implications of drug resistance?

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance and multiple resistance have resulted in increasing difficulties in the treatment of bacterial infections. Resistance leads to inappropriate empirical therapy, delay in starting effective treatment, and the use of less effective, more toxic, and more expensive drugs.