What are the side effects of Thiazolidnedions?
Conclusions: Common side effects associated with TZDs include edema, weight gain, macular edema and heart failure. Moreover, they may cause hypoglycemia when combined with other antidiabetic drugs as well as decrease hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Increased bone fracture risk is another TZD-related side effect.
What are the side effects of Meglitinides?
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is the most common side effect of meglitinides. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shakiness, lightheadedness, and confusion. These medications also can cause weight gain.
Can pioglitazone cause hypoglycemia?
This medicine can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). However, low blood sugar can occur if you delay or miss a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, drink alcohol, cannot eat because of nausea or vomiting, or take certain medicines.
Does meglitinide cause hypoglycemia?
Sulfonylureas and meglitinides directly stimulate release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells and thereby lower blood glucose concentrations. Because they work by stimulating insulin secretion, they are useful only in patients with some beta cell function. Adverse effects may include weight gain and hypoglycemia.
Under what condition is meglitinides contraindicated?
The use of meglitinides is contraindicated in patients with type I diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma.
What are the side effects of pioglitazone 30mg?
Side effects of pioglitazone include:
- swelling (edema), when used in combination with sulfonylurea or insulin.
- low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
- upper respiratory infection.
- heart failure.
- sinus infection.
- fracture of bone.
- sore throat (pharyngitis)
Are side effects harmful?
Unwanted or Unexpected Drug Reactions Side effects, also known as adverse reactions, are unwanted undesirable effects that are possibly related to a drug. Side effects can vary from minor problems like a runny nose to life-threatening events, such as a heart attack or liver damage.
What are the undesirable effects of sulfonylureas?
The most common adverse effects of sulfonylureas are hypoglycemia, weight gain, and risk for cardiovascular events. Clinicians initially prescribe lower doses of sulfonylureas to prevent the risks of hypoglycemia. Unfortunately, in some patients taking sulfonylureas, the adverse effects may outweigh the benefits.
What are the contraindications of sulfonylureas?
Contraindications to the use of sulfonylureas include hypersensitivity to sulfonylureas and drugs that have similar structures (see earlier) and pregnancy. Caution should be exercised in cases of reduced renal or hepatic function. Patients with ketoacidosis should receive insulin, not an oral antihyperglycemic agent.
Can pioglitazone cause heart failure?
Pioglitazone-induced heart failure is known in patients with underlying heart disease, but is not well documented in patients with normal left ventricular function. Pioglitazone has been very popular as it is an insulin sensitizer and insulin resistance is prevalent among Indians.
What is the difference between sulfonylureas and meglitinides?
Meglitinides act in a similar manner to the sulfonylureas but with a few major differences. For example, meglitinides bind to the sulfonylurea receptor in beta cells (the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas), but at a different part of the receptor than the sulfonylureas do.
What is another name for meglitinides?
Generic name: nateglinide For ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective).
Is pioglitazone safe in CKD?
Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione, which can be safely used in patients with CKD and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) without dose adjustment.
What is the mechanism of action of pioglitazone?
Mechanism of action Pioglitazone selectively stimulates the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and to a lesser extent PPAR-α. It modulates the transcription of the genes involved in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism in the muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver.
What are the contraindications of pioglitazone?
Who should not take PIOGLITAZONE HCL?
- an infection.
- cancer of the bladder.
- low blood sugar.
- chronic heart failure.
- severe heart failure.
- sudden and serious symptoms of heart failure called acute decompensated heart failure.
- liver problems.
- bloody urine.
What are the side effects of glitazones?
Glitazones (thiazolidinediones) can cause fluid retention, which is dose related and more likely to occur when they are used in combination with insulin or sulphonylureas. Consequences include new or worsening cardiac failure and macular oedema.
What are the guidelines for the initiation of glitazone therapy?
Initiation of glitazone therapy should be at the lowest recommended dose; subsequent dose increases should only occur following evaluation of the patient’s risk of fluid retention and cardiovascular events. It is recommended that patients be informed of the symptoms and be monitored, particularly for cardiovascular decompensation.
Do glitazones (thiazolidinediones) cause fluid retention?
Prescriber Update 28 (1): 8-10. Glitazones (thiazolidinediones) can cause fluid retention, which is dose related and more likely to occur when they are used in combination with insulin or sulphonylureas. Consequences include new or worsening cardiac failure and macular oedema.
What are glitazones used to treat?
The glitazones (also known as thiazolidinediones or TZDs) are used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are the first class of medicines to primarily target insulin resistance.