What is the life expectancy of multiple myeloma?
Multiple myeloma is an uncommon cancer of the blood. The median length of survival after diagnosis with multiple myeloma is 62 months for Stage I, 44 months for Stage II, and 29 months for Stage III. Life expectancy depends on many factors, including the person’s age, health, kidney function, and more.
At what age is multiple myeloma diagnosed?
Age. The risk of developing multiple myeloma goes up as people get older. Less than 1% of cases are diagnosed in people younger than 35. Most people diagnosed with this cancer are at least 65 years old.
Does sugar affect multiple myeloma?
The relationship between sugar and insulin may be important and related to myeloma cell growth, since insulin has been shown to trigger sugar uptake and myeloma cell growth in laboratory experiments.
How does multiple myeloma affect the immune system?
The crosstalk between multiple myeloma and immune cells within the bone marrow niche has been identified as an emerging hallmark of this hematological disease. As our knowledge on this interplay increases, it becomes more evident that successful treatment approaches need to boost the body’s natural defenses through immunotherapy.
How is PD-1 upregulated in multiple myeloma?
In MM patients, PD-1 is upregulated on T cells after activation  and direct interaction with its ligand (PD-L1) expressed in myeloma cells inhibits the T cell function by impairing proliferation and cytokine secretion .
How do multiple myeloma cells evade NK cells?
Myeloma cells can evade NK cell activity by maintaining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression  and by shedding MICA, leading to the downregulation or blocking of the NKG2D receptor on NK cells . Activation of Tregs by MM cells has also been implicated in the inhibition of normal cytotoxic activity of NK cells .