## How is morphine calculated?

Use the formula: Strength per Unit X (Number of Units/ Days Supply) X MME conversion factor = MME/Day.

## Which drug is used for PCA?

Despite a variety of medication options, morphine remains the gold standard medication for intravenous PCA. Local anesthetics are primarily used for epidural catheter and indwelling nerve catheter PCA. They include the sodium channel blockers (bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine).

**Why is morphine prescribed after surgery?**

Opioids, powerful pain medications that diminish the perception of pain, may be given after surgery. Intravenous opioids may include fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone and tramadol.

**How do you calculate morphine drip?**

Calculate hourly dose of Parenteral morphine by dividing the total 24 hour dose by 24. Therefore the hourly basal rate of Morphine sulfate infusion should be 2.54 milligrams.

### When should PCA be used?

PCA should be used mainly for variables which are strongly correlated. If the relationship is weak between variables, PCA does not work well to reduce data. Refer to the correlation matrix to determine. In general, if most of the correlation coefficients are smaller than 0.3, PCA will not help.

### How is morphine converted to methadone?

Methadone dose: Divide the total daily morphine dose by the appropriate equianalgesic dose ratio (Table 2). In this case the equianalgesic dose ratio is 4:1. 90 mg morphine divided by 4 = 22.5 mg methadone per day given as 7.5 mg three times daily or rounded down to 10 mg twice daily.

**What observations are required when caring for a patient with a PCA?**

Patients with PCA need regular observations of pain, nausea, sedation and respiratory rate, in addition to the conventional postoperative recording….Monitoring PCA Infusions

- Pain score must be recorded on the observation chart.
- Sedation scores and respiration rate must be recorded on the observation chart.

**Do you have to run fluids with PCA?**

PCA delivery To avoid the IV occluding between PCA tries, the patient should have maintenance IV fluids (with a minimum infusion rate of 5 mL/hr) running through an infusion pump (IVAC or similar). No anti-reflux valves are required if an infusion pump is used.

#### Is PCA a cluster?

In this regard, PCA can be thought of as a clustering algorithm not unlike other clustering methods, such as k-means clustering. The above linear combination of features is called the first principal component, which we will discuss more at length in the next section.

#### How long can a patient be on a PCA?

The PCA is used for as long as it is practical and tolerated. At the time of transition to other routes of use (most commonly oral medications) patients should be re-assessed and needs for analgesics reviewed. The last 12- or 24- hour requirements are noted and equiv.

**How does a morphine button work?**

With this type of pain treatment, a needle attached to an IV (intravenous) line is placed into one of your veins. A computerized pump attached to the IV lets you release pain medicine by pressing a handheld button. PCA can be used in the hospital to ease pain after surgery.